Comorbidities frequently accompany chronic heart failure, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality, and an impaired quality of life. Extreme comorbidity is significantly more common in patients with chronic heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The efficient management of such complexity requires the integration of general and specialist expertise.
Transvenous Phrenic Nerve Stimulation - A Novel Therapy for Central Sleep Apnoea in Heart Failure
European Cardiology 2012;8(1):44-7